825), and Al-Kindi's four volume work On the Use of the Indian Numerals (ca. These numerals (with slight variations) were in use over quite a long time span up to the 4th century.
During the Gupta period (early 4th century to the late 6th century), the Gupta numerals developed from the Brahmi numerals and were spread over large areas by the Gupta empire as they conquered territory.
Numbers were expressed using a "named place-value notation", using names for the powers of 10: dasa, shatha, sahasra, ayuta, niyuta, prayuta, arbuda, nyarbuda, samudra, madhya, anta, parardha etc., the last of these being the name for a trillion (10 The form of numerals in Ashoka's inscriptions in the Brahmi script (middle of the third century BCE) involved separate signs for the numbers 1 to 9, 10 to 90, 1.
A multiple of 100 or 1000 was represented by a modification (or "enciphering" Such enciphered numerals directly represented the named place-value numerals used verbally.
They continued to be used in inscriptions until the end of the 9th century.
In his seminal text of 499 CE, Aryabhata devised a novel positional number system, using Sanskrit consonants for small numbers and vowels for powers of 10.
The full system emerged by the 8th to 9th centuries, and is first described in Al-Khwarizmi's On the Calculation with Hindu Numerals (ca. The Brahmi numerals have been found in inscriptions in caves and on coins in regions near Pune, Mumbai, and Uttar Pradesh.To restore the softness to Play-Doh compound, try adding water one drop at a time and working it in to moisten the Play-Doh compound.You can also try wrapping the Play-Doh compound in a damp paper towel, returning it to the container and replacing the cover. Play-Doh compound is designed to use over and over again.Khadirarishta ingredients: Khadira – Acacia catechu – heart wood – 2.4 kg Devadaru – Cedrus deodara – heart wood – 2.4 kg Bakuchi – Psoralea corylifolia – Seed – 576 grams Darvi – Berberis aristata – 960 g Haritaki – Terminalia chebula – 960 g Vibhitaki – Terminalia bellirica – 960 g Amalaki – Amla – Emblica officinalis – 960 g Coarse powder of above is taken, added with water – 98.304 liters. This is added with Makshika – honey – 9.6 kg Sharkara – Sugar candy – 4.8 kg Fine powder of Dhataki – Woodfordia fruticosa – Flower – 960 g Kankola – Piper cubeba – Fruit – 48 grams Nagakeshara – Mesua ferrea – Stamen – 48 g Jatiphala – Myristica fragrans – Seed – 48 g Lavanga – clove – 48 g Ela – cardamom – 48 g Twak – Cinnamon – 48 g Patra – Cinnamomum tamala – leaves – 48 g Krishna – Pippali – Long pepper – 192 g Method of manufacturing: The first set of herbs in coarse powder form is taken, boiled with the specified amount of water, reduced to a quarter part to get Kashaya. It is added with sugar and mixed well, filtered again.Then rest of the ingredients are added and kept in an air tight container which is smeared from inside with ghee for fermentation. Reference: Bhaishajya Ratnavali 54/365-370, Sharangdhara Samhita, Madhyama Khanda 10/60-65 Shelf life: 10 years.