Despite many benefits to this global expansion, the resulting increased diversity may also engender more conflicts. Still, if conflicts are handled effectively, culturally diverse teams and organizations can be both highly efficient and productive (Humes and Reilly 2008 pp. To understand conflict management style variances across cultures, it is imperative to understand fundamental cultural differences. Holism is the tendency to see everything as a whole. Thus, this study aims to add to this initial research by employing holism as a cultural value framework for investigating differences and similarities in conflict management styles between S. Next, we report the methods used to collect information about holistic tendencies, as well as conflict management styles, from U. Building upon these frameworks, holism has recently been introduced as one of the primary cultural values distinguishing the East and the West (Kim et al. A person who uses this style seeks the middle ground of a problem-solving strategy and is willing to give up something to get other things. Based on past research and the tenets of holism, the first hypothesis posits that: H1: South Korean organizational employees will show more holistic tendencies than will U. We hypothesized that, regardless of culture, the greater the holistic tendencies, the more the conflict management choices will reflect concern for others (accommodating, collaborating, and compromising). Respondents were asked to think about the most recent conflict they had with a colleague at work and to answer the 30 TKI items based on how they behaved in the situation. The last section of the survey asked for participants’ demographic information. employees, the avoiding or compromising styles were the most preferred, followed by accommodating, collaborating or competing. MANOVA and follow-up univariate F tests were used to investigate H6 and H7 which examined the comparative style preferences of S. Clearly, organizations are in the middle of an important transition as their environments become more and more globally diverse. However, investigations of holism’s efficacy are still in their infancy. Then, we introduce conflict and conflict management styles as ubiquitous communicative activities likely impacted by the cultural value of holism. A variety of theoretical perspectives have been proposed to explain cultural differences between the East and the West, including the frameworks of High-Low contexts (Hall 1969, 1976), Individualism-Collectivism (Hofstede 1980, 1991), and self-construals (Markus and Kitayama 1991 pp. Numerous scholars have adopted these frameworks to investigate cultural differences in various communication contexts (e.g., conflict management, relationship maintenance, among other contexts) and have greatly contributed to our understanding of cultural distinctions. The compromising style is positioned in the middle with moderate concerns for both oneself and others. participants also preferred the avoiding style more than did S. The current investigation expands on Lee and Rogan’s work by employing the cultural frame of holism to re-examine S. Employing a recently developed measure of holism (Kim et al. 543-566), this study investigated how holistic tendencies are related to choices of conflict management strategies. Secondly, we wanted to explore the relationship between holism and each of the conflict management styles. The first part of the survey measured individuals’ conflict management styles utilizing the Thomas-Killmann Conflict Mode Instrument [TKI] (Thomas and Kilmann 1974). Reliability for the holism items showed a Cronbach’s alpha of .92. We won’t send you spam – you choose the digests you’d like to receive.Sign Up Now » As the co-author of the Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument (TKI), here is the fourth of my ongoing series of blog entries for ICON Success.Understanding the tactics and strategies of others who use competitive styles can assist conflict managers in defusing the negative consequences of competition and working toward a mutual gains approach.Competitive tactics include: - Lying - Concealing one's own goals - Concealing one's own interests - Attacking or criticizing the other person verbally - Becoming positional, and then incrementally compromising toward a middle ground - Elevating one's own arguments - Denigrating or rejecting the other's arguments - Threatening and bluffing - Denying responsibility - Pretending to be or actually being hostile "Whatever you want is fine with me." When one party in a conflict genuinely does not care about the outcome of the conflict, accommodation may be the right choice for that situation.When accommodating, an individual neglects their own concerns to satisfy the concerns of the other person; there is an element of self-sacrifice in this mode.
The common feature with these three modes is their zero-sum, win/lose nature: The more you get, the less I get (and vice versa), since the size of the pie is fixed.As Markman, Stanley, and Blumberg (1996) conclude, "becoming more aware of the effects of your differing communication styles [in relationships] can go a long way toward preventing misunderstandings" (p. This study employed a new theoretical frame, holism, to distinguish cultural differences in conflict management strategy preference. The majority of studies have found that Easterners are less confrontational, less assertive, and more cooperative than Westerners (Ting-Toomey 1988 pp. Koreans preferred collaborating, compromising, and accommodating styles, whereas U. Keywords: Increased globalization in the business environment is a motivating force behind many industries’ expansion of trading partners. Finally, the avoiding style arises when there is a low concern for both oneself and the other. 27-56) sampled Anglo-Australian and East Asian ethnic Chinese college students with work experience and found similar results. Third, we sought to examine relationships between culture and conflict management strategy preferences. Korean employees would prefer using conflict management strategies that show a high concern for others. H4: South Korean organizational employees will report a preference for using the compromising, collaborating, and accommodating styles over other styles. H6: South Korean organizational employees will report using the compromising, collaborating and accommodating styles significantly more than U. Survey respondents were randomly called to confirm their actual participation in the survey. Korean organizational employees would show more holistic tendencies than U. Although additional investigation is needed to further explore how holism can be used to explain cultural differences, these results point to the richness of this new cultural value as a theoretical framework and suggest its potential for future investigations. industry partners included Canada, China, Mexico, Japan, Germany, United Kingdom, South Korea, Taiwan, France and Saudi Arabia. When people involved in a conflict situation find themselves to be wrong, this style is often best used. H3: Holism will be negatively correlated with the conflict management styles of competition and avoidance. participants will prefer using conflict management strategies that show a higher concern for self. organizational employees will report a preference for using the competing and avoiding styles over other styles. Korean organizations and asked employees to fill it out during the months of June and July in 2008. Students who recruited survey participants received extra credit from their course directors.